For a few words about my
reviewing process and preferences, please see the introduction to
Classical Review #36.
The appearance of a classical musician on a world or
pop music compendium has frequently been decried as “crossover.” The core
classics, after all, have long been draped in an overlay of snobbery and
elitism that suggests that those who venture beyond the black and white
boundaries of the concert hall are betraying their ranks, so to speak. (It
was not that long ago that
Metropolitan Opera General Director Rudolf Bing fired Wagnerian soprano
Helen Traubel for singing in a nightclub. And in 2001, mezzo Anne Sofie
Von Otter, who makes her long-awaited Cal Performances recital debut next
January, temporarily fell from grace in at least one
Gramophone's reviewer's estimation
when she recorded her marvelous, anything but operatic Lost in
the Stars collaboration with Elvis
Sometimes the label “crossover” is appropriate.
Certainly there is no question that major record labels, faced with
declining sales, fewer retail and media outlets, and an appalling
cessation of music education have been scrambling to ignite the fires of
consumption under veteran and new listeners by initiating crossover
projects. But it is equally true that many classical performers and
composers now feel free to channel their passion for folk, world, and
popular music into genuine artistic statements. As a result, the concert
hall increasingly welcomes artists whose music crosses boundaries to
create original fusions of rock, folk, classical, and electronica.
There is historical precedent for such explorations.
19th century European composers such as Brahms, Janacek,
Dvorak, and Canteloube, followed by 20th century Americans such
as Ives, Copland, Schumann and Harrison set about adopting and rearranging
traditional folk melodies, songs and hymns into classical composition.
Classed up in acceptable new guises, folk melodies from around the globe
entered the concert hall, allowing so-called sophisticates to reconnect
with the simple, enduring music that had nurtured preceding generations.
Jazz made its entry as well, with Ravel, Milhaud, Gershwin among others
incorporating jazz rhythms into their music.
Which brings us to the present. Three recent
releases, two featuring internationally known classical artists, explore
the traditional and new music of Brazil, Argentina, Poland, and North
Africa. The sincerity of these endeavors suggests that these projects
would best be understood, not as “crossover,” but rather as acts of
A recording that deserves unreserved praise comes
from one of our most dedicated ambassadors of cultural exploration,
cellist Yo-Yo Ma. With a huge discography, amassed over 20 years, that
includes classics from the baroque era onwards; music of Japan, the
Appalachias, the Silk Road, and Argentina; and the soundtracks to Tan
Dun's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
and Philip Glass' Nagoygatsi,
Ma now turns his attention to Brazil.
“I've always loved Brazilian music,” he explains in
the PR that accompanies his latest disc. “There's an undercurrent of
sensuality in it that is incredibly seductive. It's a place between the
conscious and the unconscious – a place where the rational and the
irrational meet.” Whatever you wish to make of that last statement,
perhaps a veiled reference to the spirit communication and shamanism that
are central to Brazilian culture, there is no question that Ma's love for
Brazilian music shines on.
|OBRIGADO BRAZIL • YO-YO MA
A superb artist, Ma is a wonder. The subtle nuance of
his playing enriches every selection, freely flowing between casual
understatement, elegiac restraint, and sinuous quasi-vocalism without a
hint of self-consciousness. To hear Ma's cello echo clarinet master
Paquito d'Rivera's insinuating coolness on Jacó do Bandolim's “Doce de
Coco” and Pixinguinha's sensuous “Carinhoso” is a joy. The contrast
between Ma's relaxed but totally attentive sound in contemporary Brazilian
music and his more inward, at times elegaic phrasing on the disc's two
gorgeous Villa-Lobos works (“A Lenda Do Caboclo” sounding as French as it
is Brazilian) further attests to his versatility.
The disc features Ma joining three
composer/musicians: Egberto Gismonti, whose new treatments of three of his
compositions offer him variously playing piano, guitar and flute to Ma's
cello; Sérgio Assad, whose own composition “Menino” and Heitor
Villa-Lobos' “A Lenda do Caboclo” spotlight him playing guitar with his
guitarist brother Odair Assad and Ma; and Cesar Camargo Mariano, whose
disappointingly pop formulaic “Cristal” and more successful “Samambaia”
showcase him playing piano to Ma's cello. Other stellar musicians include
pianist Kathryn Stott (as nuanced as Ma in the classical compositions),
guitarists Oscar Castro-Neves and Romero Lubambo, percussionist Cyro
Baptista, and singer/guitarist Rosa Passos.
Vocalist Passos is superb on bossa nova legend
Antonio Carlos Jobim's “O Amor Em Paz” and “Chega de Saudade,” her voice
and phrasing reminiscent of that heard on Jobim and Joao Gilberto's
unforgettable original recordings. Gismonti's “Bodas de Prata & Quatro
Cantos” are in some ways the most forward looking of the works on the
program, as engrossing as Villa-Lobos' compositions. Ending with a
so-called “Bonus” track, Gismonti's “Salvador,” this album could very well
win Ma another well-deserved Grammy. The sound, while not ultimately
transparent, is certainly rich and colorful enough to do justice to this
beautiful, outstanding excursion into the Brazilian realm.
Equal enthusiasm extends to . . .
SERÁ UNA NOCHE: LA SEGUNDA
M.A RECORDINGS M062A
A follow-up to the first Será une Noche
(M052A), a unique quasi-improvisatory exploration which fused Argentinian
tango with “diverse contemporary and ancient musics, Indian classical
music, baroque music and free improvisation,” Será une Noche
La Segunda deserves as many
raves as I gave its predecessor.
One of many unique offerings from the independent M.A
label (1- 888-794-6229 or
http://www.marecordings.com/) whose Japan-based producer Todd Garfinkle
has an uncommon ability to generate music from unlikely sources, Será
una Noche: La Segunda is a rare
example of a recording in which quality of musicianship and degree of
imagination are complemented by outstanding sonics.
This is the first disc from M.A. recorded with a
sampling rate of 176.4 kHz. The stellar engineering further highlights
M.A.'s specialty, digital recordings that maximize the sense of space
around and between sounds. There is a mesmerizing quality to the sound of
this disc (and most M.A. discs), light years ahead of most mass-market
fare that makes listening to performances recorded in Argentina's
Monasterio Gandara a special experience. And when M.A.'s sonics grace a
production that features such accomplished Argentinian musicians as Lidia
Borda, Santiago Vazquez, Marcelo Moguilevsky, Edgardo Cardozo, Martin
Iannaccone, and Gabriel Rivano on percussion, clarinet, bass clarinet,
recorders, harmonica, guitar, voice, bandoneón and that most elevated of
art forms, whistling, the rewards are plentiful.
Será una Noche: La Segunda
mostly features traditional pieces
composed around the beginning of the 20th century, when the
tango was young. Although project co-instigator Santiago Vazquez notes
that in these thoroughly modern arrangements one can hear older musical
styles such as milongas – rhythms with African influence – a habanera, as
well as the Argentinian folk rhythms that provide inspiration for original
music composed by members of the group, South American music expert and UC
Santa Cruz Professor of Ethnomusicology John Schechter reports that these
engrossing, sometimes danceable modern interpretations render most of the
traditional melodies barely recognizable. While the degree of jazz
improvisation heard on perhaps the most far out selection, the opening
tango milonga “El Choclo,”
may disturb those devoted to preserving indigenous music from the cultural
equivalent of deforestation, the results are marvelous. To single out just
two of the artists who perform here, Lidia Borda has a wonderful voice and
Moguilevsky's whistling is marvelous. This is great, entrancing stuff,
occasionally humorous, and a pleasure to listen to. Don't miss it.
Note that M.A. is preparing to release another
potentially delicious, disc, Buenos Aires Madrigal
(M063A). Performed by "La Chimera", it features Furio Zanasi(Italia) and
Ximena Biondi (Buenos Aires) singing on many of the tracks. Furio Zanasi
often sings with Jordi Savall's ensemble.
This leaves us with . . .
NIGEL KENNEDY AND THE KROKE BAND
EAST MEETS EAST • EMI 7243 5 57512 2
This is the latest offering from the classical
violinist formerly known as Kennedy who shocked the establishment by
performing Brahms in casual dress. A thoroughly 2003, quasi-electronic
exploration of traditional and traditionally derived music from Eastern
Europe and North Africa, the disc features Kennedy (violin and electric
violin) and the Kroke Band of Krakow, Poland -- Tomasz Kukurba (villa,
vocals, flutes, percussion), Jerzy Bawol (accordion, additional vocals),
and Tomasz Lato (double bass).
This disc, recorded at higher rock music levels,
sounds nothing like the offerings from Sony and M.A. reviewed above.
Although parts were recorded at EMI's superior Abbey Road facilities,
there is a raucous, electronic edge to many of the selections that, even
when reproduced on euphonic tube equipment, can lead to pronounced
discomfort. That, of course, may be the point -- electronic,
rock-influenced music is rarely recommended as a digestive aid – but it
does suggest that the man who has reverted to calling himself Nigel
Kennedy is still into getting under people's skin by whatever means
The recording also raises essential questions of
aesthetics. Do we need or even want electronic updates of traditional
fare? What is gained by transforming the insinuating timbres of acoustic
instruments into electronic buzz saws? What is the point?
A number of selections are original syntheses either
created or arranged by the four musicians, while others are arrangements
of traditional melodies. Assuming that sonics are not an impediment –
start with the volume low – a light may go off when you hear the
traditional “Ajde Jano,” a song that virtually every folk dancer knows by
heart. Guest vocalist Natacha Atlas sounds very much like the woman I used
hear sing this song on a scratchy '78 a good 35 years ago at weekly folk
dances at Yale, but that rendition was a bit slower and more
heart-touching. The lovely “Lullaby for Kamila” seems slyly extrapolated
from the traditional melody that begins the disc, but is slower and far
more moving. “T 4.2” also draws on “Ajde Jano,” but features some
exceedingly bright, psychedelic rock riffs that will send traditionalists
running for cover. “Eden” is a typically beguiling Eastern European tune,
progressing from a slow, sweet beginning to an increasingly faster,
spirited dance. “Kazimierz” will again ring a bell for folk dancers, while
Nigel's beautiful violin solo on “Lost in Time,” meant to describe winter
living conditions in a quarter in Poland near where he now lives,
impresses with its emotion. Even the strings of the Krakow Philharmonic
make an appearance on “One Voice,” described as “a simple melody played in
turn on three instruments by three musicians of three faiths.”
Nigel Kennedy jointly funded this disc with EMI.
Clearly it is a labor of love. Despite a few beautiful selections, whether
or not that love will be returned remains to be seen.
EIGHTH BLACKBIRD: THIRTEEN WAYS
CEDILLE 90000 067
Think the expansive vision of Kronos, the freshness
of youth, and an unusual complement of instruments. Note that their name
derives from Wallace Stevens' enigmatic poem “Thirteen Ways of Looking at
a Blackbird,” whose complete text is recited in the course of the longest
work on the program, Thomas Albert's 29-minute Thirteen Ways
(1997). Add in members' names and
instruments: Molly Alicia Barth, flutes;
Michael J. Maccaferri,
clarinets; Matt Albert,
violin & viola; Nicholas Photinos,
cello; Matthew Duvall,
percussion; and Lisa
Eighth Blackbird is one of the most adventurous and
exciting contemporary music ensembles on today's scene. Its members first
joined together in 1996, while working toward Bachelor's degrees in
performance from the Oberlin Conservatory. Currently Ensemble-in-residence
at the University of Chicago, their host of awards and commissions
includes the Naumburg Chamber Music Award and three CMA/ASCAP Awards for
Adventurous Programming. In the past year, they've performed at numerous
U.S. music festivals and institutions, including a recent stint at the
Norfolk Chamber Music Festival.
The music, of course, is the thing; thankfully,
quality of repertoire and musicianship are stellar. The disc begins with
an arrangement of Joan Tower's Petroushskates
(1980). Tower, who like the other composers on the disc contributes her
own liner notes, explains that her homage to Stravinsky's
Petroushka invokes an imaginary
company of skaters, “thereby creating a sort of musical carnival on ice.”
It's the most carefree work on the disc, quite delightful and upbeat, with
sharp rhythmic bursts and bubbling melodies that are quite endearing.
Eighth Blackbird was surprised to discover that the
2000 Naumburg Prize included a commission by then 85-year old composer
George Perle. Perle's 11-plus minute Critical Moments 2
(2001) consists of nine variations, some under a minute in duration. The
composer, known for his radical “12-tone tonality” reinterpretation of the
music of Schoenberg and the Second Viennese School, imitates the
instrumentation in Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire,
with percussion substituted for quasi-spoken Sprechstimme.
Lest this sound like “old hat” nostalgia
from an over-the-hill octogenarian, there's a huge variety of fascinating
musical and emotional expression in Perle's short variations. Ensemble
member Michael J. Maccaferri calls them “fabulous.”
The same can be said for David Schober's
Variations (1998). The composer
shared an Oberlin dorm room with Eighth Blackbird's Matt Albert, and wrote
the work when he was 24-years old. His variations are based on harmonic
modes developed by the late Olivier Messiaen. It's great stuff, and bodes
well for the concerto Schober is writing for Eighth Blackbird.
As for Thomas Albert's Thirteen Ways
(1997); Albert knows the sextet's members well; string player Matt Albert
is his son. Honoring Matt's love for soaring melody, father Thomas has
composed a series of musical comments on visual images that sprang to his
mind while reading Wallace Stevens' poem “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a
Blackbird.” (He was also obsessed by the Fibonacci series in mathematics,
but that discussion would get as heady as Schober's comments on the
“general Shoenbergian sense of the Grudgestalt).
Instead, imagine inspiration springing
from such Stevens stanzas as:
I do not
know which to prefer,
beauty of inflections
beauty of innuendoes,
These words only begin to suggest the musical flights
of fancy that await the adventurous. Check it out.
CONTRALTO EWA PODLES ON HER HOME TURF
Two recent releases from Polish label DUX, both
http://www.qualiton.com as well as major outlets, feature
the great Polish contralto Ewa Podles recorded in her homeland.
KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI: TE DEUM, LACRIMOSA
was released this year but recorded March 1983 in the
Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra Concert Hall. It features Podles
(billed as a mezzo-soprano) joining three other soloists and The Polish
Radio Symphony Orchestra and Choir in Cracow in two sacred choral works by
the great Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki.
Vocal lovers who have anxiously awaited Podles' star
turn in the twice-postponed New York Philharmonic debut of Penderecki's as
yet unfinished Phaedra can now go
back to the beginning of her career 20 years ago to get a less than
sonically ideal sense of how she sounded when Penderecki conducted her in
two of his sacred works. Both compositions premiered in 1980. They join a
body of liturgical work composed over the past 35 years that on August 7,
2003 won Penderecki the European Sacred Music Prize.
In a discussion conducted five years ago in Lyon,
France by Joel Kasow, Podles revealed that countertenors are not the only
singers on the planet who suffer from gender confusion: “People don't know
my type of voice, a true contralto. At the start of my career, people
called me a mezzo-soprano, but I am not a mezzo like other mezzos, I am a
contralto. The first prize I won was for ‘Rare Voices.' And a true
contralto is almost unknown in the 20th century. You must have a range of
more than three octaves, high notes like a soprano, low notes like a real
alto, as well as the technique to sing coloratura.
“If I sing with three voices, it's because it is
impossible to sing over three octaves with the same voice - you can't sing
a high C the same way you sing the low C three octaves down. The important
people who decide don't know the kind of voice I have. What can we offer
Mme. Podles? Rosina, perhaps, Dalila, not sure because the voice is so
masculine. I often hear that my chest notes are too forced, too heavy, too
coarse, but that's the voice I was born with, grâce à Dieu . . . .
“My voice comes from my mother, who is also a true
contralto, but in her day she didn't have the opportunity to have a big
international career; she sang in Poland, but because of her baritone-like
voice she sang in the chorus, but she also sang Rosina as she had the high
notes. She always had a problem, even when she recorded for the radio,
because when her name, Juliana, was announced, there were listeners who
thought that a mistake had been made and they were hearing Julian.” [See
The Podles' voice we can make out on the 20-year old,
far from ideally recorded early digital performance is lighter, brighter,
and less husky than what we hear now. While the raw power of Penderecki's
Te Deum (contrasted with the far
more ethereal Lacrimosa)
seems ideal for Podles' vocal and emotional expanse, she is hardly the
star of the recording. Rather it is the music itself, definitively
conducted by the composer that is most imposing.
Penderecki first made a name for himself with such
startling, polytonal works as Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima.
The element of shock remains, refined into a striking musical language
that extends from the sacred, tonal intimacy with which the 200 year-old
hymn that begins the final
part of the Te Deum, to the
raucous clangor that accompanies the words “Incessabili voce proclamant.”
Imagine taking the loudest, most heart-wrenching, declamations heard in
the Mozart and Verdi Requiems and translating them into a late 20th
century musical language that replaces tonal prettiness with a terrible
yet indescribably beautiful sense of awe, terror, power, dread, misery,
and wonder. This gives you a hint of what Penderecki has to offer.
Soloists have appropriately strong and cutting voices, and the chorus
sings with great immediacy. If only the recording, handicapped by noise in
the loudest passages, were less veiled and one-dimensional. Still, as a
definitive performance, this recording must be heard.
EWA PODLES GARRICK HOLSSON: LIVE
Recorded December 8, 2002 in the Concert Hall of the
Warsaw Philharmonic, this recital unites Podles with pianist Garrick
Ohlsson for songs by the Polish Fryderyk Chopin and the Russians Modest
Mussorgsky and Sergey Rachmaninov. The concert may have been a recent
affair, but the recording cannot come close to the vibrancy and color that
distinguish Podles' recent recordings for Delos. What we do hear,
nonetheless, is echt Podles, her
somewhat husky, powerful middle range (and slightly mealy-mouthed
pronunciation) sandwiched by cavernous lows and sterling highs. Her
conviction is total, making the best case possible for Chopin's frankly
old-fashioned songs about a girls' desire, a handsome lad, wedding rings
and the like.
The centerpiece of the disc, the battles and
suffering of Mussorgsky's Songs and Dances of Death,
have a much more immediate impact. I have
not heard Podles' 1995 recording of the work with Graham Johnson at the
piano (Forlane UCD 16683), but she did record Dmitri Shostakovich's far
more haunting orchestrations of the songs with Constantine Orbelian and
the Philharmonia of Russia (Delos DE 3298) in 2001. The sound on that
recording is again superior. Since Shostakovich prepared his
orchestrations in 1962 for the great soprano Galina Vishnevskaya, by all
means seek out their live 1963 performance by Vishnevskaya with her
husband Mstislav Rostropovich conducting the Gorki State Philharmonic
Orchestra (Melodiya/BMG 74321 53237 2).
The remainder of the disc offers Ohlsson playing
Scriabin Etudes and the duo performing a set of lovely Rachmaninoff songs.
The high note on the concluding “Spring Streams” is alone worth the price
PUCCINI: TOSCA • FRANCO CORELLI, TENOR ET AL.
• ORCHESTRA E CORO DEL TEATRO REGIO DI PARMA, G. MORELLI COND
MYTO 2MCD 032.277
PUCCINI: TURANDOT • BIRGIT NILSSON, MONTSERRAT
CABALLé * CHORUS AND ORCHESTRA OF THE COLON THEATRE, F. PREVITALI,
LIVING STAGE LS 1020
These two live opera recordings from the 1960's
feature three of the greatest artists of the era singing their
considerable guts out. The immediacy and electricity of live performance
encourages them to deliver interpretations so breathtaking as to make them
required listening for all opera lovers.
recorded on January 21, 1967 in Parma's Teatro Regio, captures tenor
Franco Corelli's riveting Mario Cavaradossi on a night when he sang with
at least 175% of his usual intensity, Corelli was hardly a stranger to the
role of the painter/patriot, having sung the part as early as 1954. By the
night of this performance, he had already sung the role throughout the
world and recorded it commercially on disc and film.
Regardless of the number of times he had sung the
role, something special happened on the night of January 21. Corelli sang
as if totally possessed by the spirit and pathos of his character. His
thrilling, virile voice alternately produced powerful ringing tones and
the full-throated mezza voce for which he was equally prized. Notes were
held for extraordinary lengths, in a manner that would seem self-indulgent
in an artist incapable of maintaining Corelli's degree of animal
The first act's “Recondita Armonia” is unquestionably
beautiful, but it is the third act “E lucevan le stelle” that drives the
audience wild. Corelli has to work hard to produce his sustained
pianissimo, the voice exhibiting an occasional flicker as he holds his
hushed tones for what seem like seconds on end. But he perseveres, the
extra struggle making the performance even that more riveting. Instead of
cutting notes short, Corelli holds them longer than most would deem wise,
stretching out phrases and taking risks as though his life depends upon
it. The results, abetted by conducting that allows him all the time he
needs to spill his heart out, are incredible.
Myto's stereo captures every second of applause after
“E lucevan le stele,” every cry of “Bis” (encore). Conductor Morelli
attempts twice to continue the performance, but the audience interrupts
with more and yet more cries of “bis.” Corelli, who rarely indulged
audiences with encores, remained silent. Finally, after minutes of
clatter, the performance continued. At the opera's conclusion, renewed
chants of “Bis, Franco” could only be quieted when the house manager had a
piano rolled onto the stage so that Corelli could sing “Core ‘ngrato” as
an encore. I would love to report how he sounded in that performance, but
my review pressing inexplicably lacks the promised encore track.
As for the other artists, Virginia Gordoni (born
Virginia Copeland) studied in New York but mainly made her career abroad;
she returned to New York in 1954 to sing the lead role in the Broadway
world premiere of Menotti's The Saint of Bleecker Street.
Gordoni gives her all, but the voice lacks Corelli's tonal beauty.
Baritone Attilio D'Orazi sings Scarpia with conviction, but memories of
Titto Gobbi are hardly effaced. Ultimately it is for Corelli that this
performance must be heard.---
The previously unpublished Turandot
offers the estimable pairing of Birgit
Nilsson as Turandot and Montserrat Caballé as Liu. Nilsson was perhaps the
finest ice princess of the last 50 years, with the cutting tone and
blazing high C that are essential for the role. The performance dates from
September 1965, with Nilsson in her prime and Caballé captured less than
six months after her show-stopping, last minute New York City debut in
Donizetti's Anna Bolena.
The other performers are merely adequate.
You may have a hard time convincing yourself that
Nilsson warms to produce requisite melting, sensual tone in the final
scene, or that this performance differs significantly from her other
recorded Turandots (see below); regardless, the chilling impact of her “In
Questa Reggia” remains unquestionable. Caballé, on the other hand,
delivers a performance of unparalleled intensity and vocal beauty.
Eschewing her tendency to float exquisite pianissimi at every possible
opportunity, she sings most of her opening aria, “Signore, ascolta” forte.
There is a surprising idiomatic gasp at one point. Then, as she approaches
her final high note, Caballé softens the voice to produce an extended
thread of fabled floated tone. Her impeccably focused pianissimi are
extraordinary, seeming to rise from the deepest center of her being.
Without missing a beat, she float up to the final high note, flawlessly
swells to double forte, and holds onto the note for what seems like an
hour or two before releasing it with a desperate cry so startling as to
transform any self-respecting opera queen into a screaming lunatic. This
is a performance to die for.
Other live and commercial performances: This same
Parma performance of Tosca is also
available complete on Bel Canto Society BCS 5013. I do not know how it
sounds compared with the Myto set. Cavaradossi's two great arias plus
excerpts from a number of important scenes from the same performance are
available on Myto MCD 92464; this best buy single disc also contains
excerpts from Corelli's Parma performances of Norma
and Il Trovatore. Corelli's
first studio recording of the opera, featuring Leontyne Price as Floria
Tosca, is preferable to the later commercial outing with Birgit Nilsson
available in a bargain Decca two-fer. The 1956 film of the opera is
available from Bel Canto/Allegro].
Both Nilsson and Caballé recorded Turandot
commercially. Nilsson recorded the role first with Tebaldi and Bjoerling,
later with Scotto and Corelli; Caballé sang Liu to Sutherland's Turandot
and Pavarotti's Calaf, and later sang Turandot to Freni's Liu and
Carrerras' Calaf. Caballé also recorded Liu's arias commercially. For
alternate live performances featuring Nilsson as Turandot, Myto MCD 014250
and Legato LCD 153 pair her with Price and di Stefano; Myto MCD 982181 and
Opera D'Oro OPD 1152 pair her with Vishnevskaya (a strange choice for Liu)
and Corelli; and OPD 1256 pairs her with Carteri and di Stefano. The DVD
“Great Stars of Opera” VAI 4201 features Nilsson singing “In questa reggia”
on a 1963 Bell Telephone Hour; Kultur D 2528 also contains Nilsson footage
from the Ed Sullivan Show. While there is a Gala recording of Caballé
singing the role of Turandot, Living Stage offers the only live document
of her singing Liu.